A Summary of the Battle of Dunbar and the Scots who went to Berwick, Maine
In January, 1649, Oliver Cromwell’s anti-Royalist forces executed King Charles I in London. Until that time, Scotland had sided with Cromwell in the English Civil War. But the king had been born in Edinburgh, and his murder dismayed his northern countrymen, who later that year defied the English Commonwealth by proclaiming as king his son, Charles II.
Above, a map shows the Scottish coast at about this period. Edinburgh, far left, is about 20 miles (32 km) from Dunbar, at far right, where armies of Scotland and England would clash over the fate of the monarchy. (Berwick-upon-Tweed and the English border are another 20 miles (32 km) further along the coast to the southeast, beyond the right edge of the map.)